Pesanan Panaja

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Defining Communication

Carl Rogers (1952) (Figure 1.2) says that:
“Real communication occurs ... when we listen with understanding - to see the expressed idea and attitude from the other person’s point of view, to sense how it feels to him, to achieve his frame of reference in regard to the things he is talking about.”
This is particularly apt in the case of oral communication as oral communication is not just speaking and articulating your thoughts well but also involves listening to what has been said and interpreting the message accurately as intended by the speaker.
Figure 1.2: Carl Rogers

Elizabeth Tierney (1998) describes communication as a process which begins when you have a message that you want to deliver to an audience. Your audience receives the message, reacts to it and then responds to your message. That response may lead you to react and give another message. This process may then go on and on.
The message can be anything that you wish to communicate to an audience. It may be an idea, a thought or a feeling that you wish to share with someone else. It can range from a simple greeting to a friend to a lengthy report at a formal meeting where many people may be present. What is important is that there is a sender and a receiver of the message.
According to Julia T. Wood (2009), “Communication is a systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings.”
The key terms in this definition are:
  1. Process - it is ongoing, continuous and always changing.
  2. Systemic - It happens within a system of interconnected parts that affect each other.
  3. Symbols - These are what people use to represent things e.g. all language, non-verbal behaviours, art, and music.
  4. Meanings - Any act of communication involves two essential aspects - the literal message and the relationship between those who communicate with each other.
Joseph Devito (2009) says that:
“Communication occurs when one person (or more) sends and receives messages that are distorted by noise, occur within a context, have some effect, and provide some opportunity for feedback.”
He lists six elements which are present in all communication acts.
  1. Context
    All communication takes place within a context that includes at least four sub-contexts:
    1. Physical
      The real environment in which communication takes place, e.g. a classroom, lecture hall, office, a public place.
    2. Social-psychological
      For example, the status/relationship among the senders and receivers, the roles and communication games that people play, cultural rules and the friendliness/unfriendliness or formality/informality of the
    3. Temporal
      The time context in which communication takes place like the time of day or night, as well as historical time, e.g. 20th or 21st century.
    4. Cultural
      The values, behaviour and beliefs of the society.
  2. Source-receiver
    There is a source (speaker) and a receiver (listener). You send a message whenever you speak, write, gesture or smile. You receive a message when you listen, read or smell something. As you send, you are also receiving your own message, e.g. you can hear yourself talk and move. At the same time, you are also receiving the messages sent by the other person.
  3. Message/s
    May be verbal or non-verbal.
  4. Channels
    This refers to the medium through which the communication passes - vocal (speech), visual (gestures, words, pictures), olfactory (smells), and tactile (touch).
  5. Noise
    Anything that interferes with you receiving a message.
  6. Effect/s
    Communication affects people in many ways - intellectual effects (changes in thinking), affective effects (changes in attitudes) and psychomotor effects (changes in behaviour).


No comments:

Post a Comment